God, gott, Icelandic góðr, English good, German gut etc stem from Germanic *goða- from Indoeuropean *ghedh- ‘to unite, be associated, suitable’. A possible relative is Greek agathós, ‘good’, from which come the personal names Agatha (Swedish Agda) and Agathon.
It is well known that the Nordic word for ‘Christmas’ goes back to heathen times to mean midwinter feasts, and that the vikings brought it to northeast Britain where it is called yule. There was also an Anglo-Saxon word géol meaning approximately ‘winter month’. The Germanic base is *jehwla-, but the origin of that is unclear.
Och (usually pronounced å), Icelandic ok, Danish og ‘and’, and German auch ‘also’ may possibly be derived from the Germanic noun *auka- ‘increase’, ‘augmentation’ from the Indogermanic root *aug-, ‘increase’, ‘augment’, (Swedish öka) from which of course augment also derives via Latin.
Ny, nytt is a good old Indoeuropean word with relatives such as English new, German neu, Greek néos, Latin novus – nothing new there!
År, English year, German Jahr is a common Germanic word, *jæra-, , from Indoeuropean *yer- , ‘year’, ‘season’ possibly originally meaning ‘spring’, or ‘year’s crop’.